Updating from os 10 4 to 10 5

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It is then convenient (for calculation, and also for applying logarithms) to separate the number into two parts--a number from 1 to 10, giving its structure, and a power of 10, giving the magnitude.Electric charge, for instance, is measured in coulombs: about one coulomb flows each second through a 100-watt lightbulb.The ancient Greeks went further and defined as "rational number" (or "logical" numbers--"rational" comes from Latin) any multiple of such an inverse, for instance 4/13, 22/7 or 355/113.Rational numbers are dense: no matter how close two of them are to each other, one could always place another rational number between them--for instance, half their sum is one choice out of many.That current is carried by a huge number of tiny negative particles, found in any atom and known as electrons.

As the concept of logarithm is broadened, that property always remains.Most square roots and solutions of equations are also of this kind, as is π, the ratio between the circumference of a circle and its diameter (denoted by the Greek letter "pi").Pi has a fair approximation in 22/7 and a much better one in 355/113, but its exact value can never be represented by any fraction.Greek philosophers in the early days of mathematics were therefore surprised to find that in spite of that density, some extra numbers could still "hide" between rational ones, and could not be represented by any rational number.For instance, √2 is of this class, the number whose square equals 2.

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